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A word which is not much heard by most of us, but an issue which has increasingly entered into our lives, particularly in the recent years with a more and more importance with each passing day. In fact, as a French word its meaning is “landscape”. In English, it is used as Landscape Architecture.

Included in the focus point of landscape architecture is everything you see around, except for the buildings.

Landscape Architecture

An art branch and a field of profession which plans and arranges the outdoors of human life and activities by using animate and inanimate materials according to scientific and ecological data and functions.

Landscape Architect

A person who forms and brings the nature to life by taking it as a material.

Landscape architecture is a profession surviving since the most ancient times of our civilization and culture. Starting with the first permanent settlements, the man has started to build houses for sheltering and protection purposes parallel to the development of technologies. In line with the increasing welfare, the concept of aesthetics also started to evolve, and in addition to durability and robustness, beauty and attractiveness of buildings also came to the forefront, and this process paved the way for landscape architecture.

The man started to decorate and glamorize the surroundings and gardens of buildings, roads and sanctuaries.



Landscape architecture is noted to be very important in Ancient Egypt, Antique Rome and all other developed civilizations of the history.

Landscaping has almost been a proof of development level in civilizations, and a sign of rise in welfare level. For instance, in the Ottoman Empire, the “Tulip Era” is the name of a process where arts and development reached peaks also in terms of landscaping.

Then, unplanned settlements and negative use of natural resources in company with the rapidly developing technologies in the 20th century have made landscaping a “cine qua non” of the life. This rapid development has led to excessive environmental, air, water and noise pollution and finally, destruction of natural assets such as soil, flora and fauna.

Comprehensive planning initiatives aimed at preventing this excessive wastage and roughness exposed to by natural resources of the earth are termed as landscape planning.



Landscape Planning

Landscape planning is the name of joint efforts of urban – region planners, architects and landscape architects.

Today, the use of “landscape planning” term instead of “garden architecture” is an expression of great change and development in this field.

Landscape Plannings

This term stands for artworks aimed at creating and preparing culturally, economically and aesthetically efficient and safe living environments (habitats) for humans in urban and rural settlements, which cover not only the landscaping principles, but also scientific works in ecological, biological, dendrological and social fields.

Landscape planning does not have a particular mold and formula. Designs are dominated by free thoughts and feelings. Designs are, however, formed by principles, in addition to ideas and feelings.

Landscape planning has been shaped under the effects of many natural, mythological, religious, ethnic and social ideas and thoughts parallel to the development of humanity by time.

In the history, first conscious garden arrangements are seen in the eastern lands such as Egypt, Mesopotamia and Iran. For example, between 2,000 and 4,000 B.C., in addition to their high culture and civilization levels, the ancient Egyptians have come to a head in garden arrangements as well. The Egyptian gardens have been seen as a reflection of power and might of Pharaohs.

In Babylonia, one of the seven wonders of the world, the historical Hanging Gardens of Babilon was built in 605 B.C. by the kind of the time for his wife Semiramis.

Seven-graded terraces built on large columns have been preferred to magnificent panorama of Babylon and Euphrates.

After Islamic era four joint aspects of all Islamic gardens were as listed below:



* Water for irrigation, quietness and music
* Shade for freshening
* Flowers for color, odor and visual pleasure
* Music for ear and spiritual pleasure

Particularly, Andalusian Umayyads have taken great steps forward in landscaping, and have been one of the civilizations which make most use of water element.

Religious beliefs have affected the choice of trees and flowers used in Islamic gardens.

For instance, in a garden, cypress tree symbolizes death, Sufism and loneliness, while abloom plum, almond and cherry trees stand for hope, joy and life, and odorous roses and jasmines represent a corner from the Heaven.

The Islamic gardening approach has spread over first to Spain and then to the whole Europe in the 9th to 13th centuries A.D.

Along with Renaissance era in Europe, landscaping has become more and more important by time, and Renaissance gardens have been built. Botanic gardens, palace gardens, parks and courtyard gardens have been started to be built in a great many of modern cities of Europe. The Renaissance architects have left large squares in the middle of big housing sites, and have decorated these squares with pools, statues, monuments and other aesthetic elements. Even today, all large European cities are planned within the frame of this approach.